style art déco

Art Deco's development of Cubism's selective geometry into a wider array of shapes carried Cubism as a pictorial taxonomy to a much broader audience and wider appeal. The framework usually of oak, was completely covered with an overlay of thin strips of wood, then covered by a second layer of strips of rare and expensive woods. It took its present name of ENSAD (École nationale supérieure des arts décoratifs) in 1927. Art Deco, sometimes referred to as Deco, is a style of visual arts, architecture and design that first appeared in France just before World War I. Ocean liners also adopted a style of Art Deco, known in French as the Style Paquebot, or "Ocean Liner Style". The stock market crash of 1929 caused Art Deco to shift toward mass production. He worked with bronze, marble, ivory, onyx, gold, alabaster and other precious materials. Examples in Portugal are the Capitólio Theater (1931) and the Éden Cine-Theater (1937) in Lisbon, the Rivoli Theater (1937) and the Coliseu (1941) in Porto and the Rosa Damasceno Theater (1937) in Santarém. [117], The use of the style was greatly enhanced by the introduction of the pochoir stencil-based printing system, which allowed designers to achieve crispness of lines and very vivid colors. Art Deco; Art Deco. [137], Mumbai's expanding port commerce in the 1930s resulted in the growth of educated middle class population. [20][21] During the same year Printemps created its own workshop called Primavera. French nationalism also played a part in the resurgence of decorative arts; French designers felt challenged by the increasing exports of less expensive German furnishings. Art Deco forms appeared in the clothing of Paul Poiret, Charles Worth and Jean Patou. Art Deco is an influential design movement that first appeared in France in the 1920's, and soon thereafter flourished on the international scene. AU $525.00. Other new technologies that were important to Art Deco were new methods in producing plate glass, which was less expensive and allowed much larger and stronger windows, and for mass-producing aluminum, which was used for building and window frames and later, by Corbusier and others, for lightweight furniture. Its members included architects Pierre Chareau, Francis Jourdain, Robert Mallet-Stevens, Corbusier, and, in the Soviet Union, Konstantin Melnikov; the Irish designer Eileen Gray, and French designer Sonia Delaunay, the jewelers Jean Fouquet and Jean Puiforcat. Local pickup. The fashion designer Paul Poiret and the graphic artist Edward McKnight Kauffer represent those whose work directly reached a larger audience. The architect Le Corbusier first learned the uses of reinforced concrete working as a draftsman in Perret's studio.[24]. [123], Other notable Deco glass designers included Edmond Etling, who also used bright opalescent colors, often with geometric patterns and sculpted nudes; Albert Simonet, and Aristide Colotte and Maurice Marinot, who was known for his deeply etched sculptural bottles and vases. Go Wild with Animal Prints. The American artist Norman Bel Geddes designed a cocktail set resembling a skyscraper made of chrome-plated steel. The City of Miami Beach established the Miami Beach Architectural District to preserve the colorful collection of Art Deco buildings found there. Other designers, including Émile-Jacques Ruhlmann and Paul Foliot refused to use mass production, and insisted that each piece be made individually by hand. The art deco era has to be one of our favourite epochs here at Canonbury Antiques - there's something about the 1920s style that lends itself so well to contemporary interiors. In 1911, the SAD proposed the holding of a major new international exposition of decorative arts in 1912. [23], Stoclet Palace, Brussels, Belgium, by Josef Hoffmann (1905–11), Detail of the facade, made of reinforced concrete covered with marble plaques, New materials and technologies, especially reinforced concrete, were key to the development and appearance of Art Deco. In the Depression economic climate, few companies were ready to build new skyscrapers. Art Deco, also called style moderne, movement in the decorative arts and architecture that originated in the 1920s and developed into a major style in western Europe and the United States during the 1930s. In Washington DC, Michael Lantz made works for the Federal Trade Commission building. Stylized Floral motifs also dominated the work of Raoul Dufy and Paul Poiret, and in the furniture designs of J.E. The images became simpler, precise, more linear, more dynamic, and were often placed against a single color background. McGraw-Hill, Inc., p. 311, sfn error: no target: CITEREFPoisson2009pages_299_and_318 (, Explanatory text on Art Deco in the Museum of Decorative Arts, Paris, Exposition internationale des arts décoratifs et industriels modernes, other skyscrapers of New York City built during the 1920s and 1930s, Exposition Internationale des Arts Décoratifs et Industriels Modernes, Esposizione Internazionale d'Arte Decorativa Moderna, Danseuse (Femme à l'éventail, Femme à la cruche), Musée national des Arts d'Afrique et d'Océanie, International Exhibition of Modern Decorative and Industrial Arts, French Economic, Social and Environmental Council, William Jefferson Clinton Federal Building, Exposition Internationale des Arts et Techniques dans la Vie Moderne, Art Deco Architecture: Design, Decoration and Detail from the Twenties and Thirties, Former Belgian National Institute of Radio Broadcasting, Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History, Learn how and when to remove this template message, List of Art Deco architecture § North America, List of Art Deco architecture § United States, List of Art Deco architecture § Central America / Caribbean, List of Art Deco architecture § South America, "M. Cunny présente une Note sur un procédé vitro-héliographique applicable aux arts décoratifs", "Enfin, dans les ateliers, on travaille à l'achèvement des objets d'art décoratifs, qui sont très nombreux", Revue des arts décoratifs (Paris), 1880–1902, Salon d'Automne 2012, exhibition catalogue, "Chapter 8, Modern Spaces; Modern Objects; Modern People", '"Cubism" at the Met: Modern Art That Looks Tragically Antique', "Catalogue of international exhibition of modern art: at the Armory of the Sixty-ninth Infantry, 1913, "Jacques Doucet's Studio St. James at Neuilly-sur-Seine", "Méthode de composition ornementale, Éléments rectilignes", "The Decorative in Twentieth Century Art: A Story of Decline and Resurgence", "City College of San Francisco: Rivera Mural – San Francisco CA", "Works Progress Administration (WPA) Art Recovery Project", "Curves of Steel: Streamlined Automobile Design", The Metropolitan Museum of Art – Special Exhibitions: Poiret: King of Fashion, "Basilica of the Sacred Heart, Koekelberg", Schwarz Architects about the Smith Center, "Frequenty Asked Questions (FAQ) – The Smith Center for the Performing Arts",, Articles with unsourced statements from February 2019, Articles needing additional references from May 2020, All articles needing additional references, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 22 December 2020, at 05:01. Free shipping on many items | Browse your favorite brands | affordable prices. Today, modern Art Deco style can be an effective way to create a dynamic interior with a hint of glamour, that nods to the past without looking dated. En architecture comme en décoration d'intérieur, le style Art déco impose un progressisme précieux, incroyablement libre, créatif et sans limite. They were sometimes made of bronze, or sometimes with much more lavish materials, such as ivory, onyx, alabaster, and gold leaf. This article was most recently revised and updated by, Gemological Institute of America - The Timeless Allure of Art Deco, Art Deco - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up), Exposition Internationale des Arts Décoratifs et Industriels Modernes. See more ideas about art deco, deco, art. Early example of Art Deco style - Illustration by Georges Lepape for Les Choses by Paul Poiret, 1911 Defining Art Deco. The settings for diamonds also changed; More and more often jewelers used platinum instead of gold, since it was strong and flexible, and could set clusters of stones. Bucharest once known as the "Little Paris" of the 19th century engages in a new adventure after the first world war, together with the new trends and progress of technology, thus redirecting its inspiration towards a further horizon, New York City. The book was a spirited attack on the excesses of the colourful and lavish objects at the Exposition; and on the idea that practical objects such as furniture should not have any decoration at all; his conclusion was that "Modern decoration has no decoration". [81], In the 1930s a dramatic new form of Art Deco painting appeared in the United States. From 1925 onwards, it was often inspired by a passion for new machines, such as airships, automobiles and ocean liners, and by 1930 this influence resulted in the style called Streamline Moderne. Illustration by Georges Barbier of a gown by Paquin (1914). As with everything in art deco interior design, 1920’s furniture was fiercely unique. We usually recognize Art Deco designs and objects intuitively, once we see them, but when it comes to the definition of this visual arts style, things tend to be a little more complicated. Characterized by its sharp-edged looks and stylized geometric patterns it is a decorative style that flourished between 1919 … Mar 19, 2017 - Ideas for art work. The Streamline style made it appear that the building itself was in motion. The Medical and Dental Building called 450 Sutter Street in San Francisco by Timothy Pflueger was inspired by Mayan architecture, in a highly stylized form; it used pyramid shapes, and the interior walls were covered highly stylized rows of hieroglyphs. Only 1 available and it's in 19 people's carts. [35], Textile design Abundance by André Mare, (1911) (Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York City, USA), Rose Pattern Textiles designed by Mare (c. 1919) (Metropolitan Museum of Art), Rose Mousse pattern for upholstery, cotton and silk (1920) (Metropolitan Museum of Art), Design of birds from Les Ateliers de Martine by Paul Iribe (1918), Textiles were an important part of the Art Deco style, in the form of colorful wallpaper, upholstery and carpets, In the 1920s, designers were inspired by the stage sets of the Ballets Russes, fabric designs and costumes from Léon Bakst and creations by the Wiener Werkstätte. [138] Parallelly, the changing political climate in the country and the aspirational quality of the Art Deco aesthetics led to a whole-hearted acceptance of the building style in the city's development. Following 1925 “Exposition of Decorative Arts” in Paris the Art Deco/Jazz Moderne Style grew in popularity. The result was a surplus of souvenirs from far-flung locales. Previously, reinforced concrete had been used only for industrial and apartment buildings, Perret had built the first modern reinforced-concrete apartment building in Paris on rue Benjamin Franklin in 1903–04. Art Deco, also called style moderne, movement in the decorative arts and architecture that originated in the 1920s and developed into a major style in western Europe and the United States during the 1930s. While most of the pavilions were lavishly decorated and filled with hand-made luxury furniture, two pavilions, those of the Soviet Union and Pavilion du Nouveau Esprit, built by the magazine of that name run by Le Corbusier, were built in an austere style with plain white walls and no decoration; they were among the earliest examples of modernist architecture. The term arts décoratifs had been invented in 1875, giving the designers of furniture, textiles, and other decoration official status. [15][16], The emergence of Art Deco was closely connected with the rise in status of decorative artists, who until late in the 19th century had been considered simply as artisans. AU $214.97 postage. It was a stark contrast to the more minimalist, nature-inspired art nouveau that preceded it. Bold Furniture. In 1905 Eugène Grasset wrote and published Méthode de Composition Ornementale, Éléments Rectilignes,[57] in which he systematically explored the decorative (ornamental) aspects of geometric elements, forms, motifs and their variations, in contrast with (and as a departure from) the undulating Art Nouveau style of Hector Guimard, so popular in Paris a few years earlier. In the 1970s efforts were made in the United States and Europe to preserve the best examples of Art Deco architecture, and many buildings were restored and repurposed. Diamonds themselves were cut in less traditional forms; the 1925 Exposition saw many diamonds cut in the form of tiny rods or matchsticks. Art Deco Coaster Set, Art Deco Style, Art Deco 1930s, 1920s Art Deco, Art Deco Style Coasters, Art Deco Flapper Girl. Explore Art Deco history, architecture, interior design, graphic design, jewelry, fashion, artists and more. It was most widely used for office buildings, train stations, airport terminals, and movie theaters; residential buildings are rare. [6] In 1868, Le Figaro newspaper used the term objets d'art décoratifs with respect to objects for stage scenery created for the Théâtre de l'Opéra. In the United States, Art Deco buildings are found from coast to coast, in all the major cities. The French designers decided to present new French styles in the Salon of 1912. Most Art Deco buildings in Africa were built during European colonial rule, and often designed by Italian and French architects. [92], Tête (front and side view), limestone, by Joseph Csaky (c. 1920) (Kröller-Müller Museum, Otterlo, Netherlands), Bronze nude of a dancer on an onyx plinth by Josef Lorenzl (c. 1925), Speed, a design for a radiator ornament by Harriet Whitney Frishmuth (1925), The Flight of Europa, bronze with gold leaf, by Paul Manship (1925) (Whitney Museum of American Art, New York City, N.Y., USA), Tanara, bronze, ivory and onyx, by Demétre Chiparus (c. 1925), Dancer, bronze, ivory, by Chiparus (c. 1925), François Pompon was a pioneer of modern stylized animalier sculpture. The art deco style is often called “eclectic,” largely due to its seamless combination of stark, geometric lines and shapes with grandiose ornamentation and exotic details. The Hôtel du Collectionneur was a popular attraction at the Exposition; it displayed the new furniture designs of Emile-Jacques Ruhlmann, as well as Art Deco fabrics, carpets, and a painting by Jean Dupas. [35] It took ideas from the high fashion vocabulary of the period, which featured geometric designs, chevrons, zigzags, and stylized bouquets of flowers. In France popular Art Deco designers included, Charles Loupot and Paul Colin, who became famous for his posters of American singer and dancer Josephine Baker. Ce style typiquement français succède à l’exubérance de l’Art nouveau qui était avant tout ornemental. Théâtre des Champs-Élysées in Paris, France (1910–13), Helsinki Central Station in Helsinki, Finland (1919), National Basilica of the Sacred Heart in Koekelberg (Brussels), Belgium (1919–69), The Mossehaus with Art Deco elements by Erich Mendelsohn in Berlin, Germany (1921–23), Daily Express Building in Manchester, UK (1936–39), Palais de Tokyo, Musée d'Art Moderne de la Ville de Paris, France (1937), Mayakovskaya Station in Moscow, Russia (1938), The architectural style first appeared in Paris with the Théâtre des Champs-Élysées (1910–13) by Auguste Perret but then spread rapidly around Europe, until examples could be found in nearly every large city, from London to Moscow. A particularly rich collection is found in Cuba, built largely for the large number of tourists who came to the island from the United States. The Art Deco period coincided with the conversion of silent films to sound, and movie companies built enormous theaters in major cities to capture the huge audience that came to see movies. $50.69 $ 50. Explore Art Deco history, architecture, interior design, graphic design, jewelry, fashion, artists and more. The costly and exotic furniture of Ruhlmann and other traditionalists infuriated modernists, including the architect Le Corbusier, causing him to write a famous series of articles denouncing the arts décoratif style. [42][43][44] Thousands of spectators at the salon passed through the full-scale model. The Société des artistes décorateurs (Society of Decorative Artists), or SAD, was founded in 1901, and decorative artists were given the same rights of authorship as painters and sculptors. The installation was attacked by some critics as extremely radical, which helped make for its success. The floor is of white and black marble, and in the cabinets decorative objects are displayed against a background of blue silk. French furniture manufacturers felt threatened by the growing popularity of German manufacturers and styles, particularly the Biedermeier style, which was simple and clean-lined. WishList Compare. … or Best Offer. Spanning many areas of visual culture, including illustrations for fashion magazines, costumes for opera and ballet, and sculpture and set design for theater, Erté’s signature style set the tone for the modern era. It is an eclectic style that is often characterized by rich colours, bold geometric shapes and lavish ornamentation. [69], Postcard of the International Exhibition of Modern Decorative and Industrial Arts in Paris, France (1925), Entrance to the 1925 Exposition from Place de la Concorde by Pierre Patout, Pavilion of the Galeries Lafayette Department Store at the 1925 Exposition. Le Corbusier's ideas were gradually adopted by architecture schools, and the aesthetics of Art Deco were abandoned. [125], Art Deco visuals and imagery was used in multiple animated films including Batman, Night Hood, All's Fair at the Fair, Merry Mannequins, Page Miss Glory, Fantasia and Sleeping Beauty. The emergence of Art Deco was closely connected with the rise in status of decorative artists, who until late in the 19th century had been considered simply as artisans. The rounded corner was not entirely new; it had appeared in Berlin in 1923 in the Mossehaus by Erich Mendelsohn, and later in the Hoover Building, an industrial complex in the London suburb of Perivale. Efforts are underway to bring the buildings back to their original color and appearance. In 1918, at the age of 58, he bought a large glass works in Combs-la-Ville and began to manufacture both artistic and practical glass objects. They were designed to show the prestige of their builders through their height, their shape, their color, and their dramatic illumination at night. Far Eastern themes also became popular; plaques of jade and coral were combined with platinum and diamonds, and vanity cases, cigarette cases and powder boxes were decorated with Japanese and Chinese landscapes made with mother of pearl, enamel and lacquer. [118], Late Art Deco wallpaper and textiles sometimes featured stylized industrial scenes, cityscapes, locomotives and other modern themes, as well as stylized female figures, metallic colors and geometric designs. [107] His furniture was based upon 18th-century models, but simplified and reshaped. He first exhibited his works at the 1913 Autumn Salon, then had his own pavilion, the "House of the Rich Collector", at the 1925 Exposition. This movement is different from the fine arts (painting and sculpture) where the art object has no practical purpose or use beyond providing interesting viewing. Art Deco is a distinctive style that was popular in the 1920s and 30s. [137] The western elites were the first to experiment with the technologically advanced facets of Art Deco, and architects began the process of transformation by the early 1930s. They also placed greater emphasis on very elaborate and elegant settings, featuring less-expensive materials such as enamel, glass, horn and ivory. The exhibits displayed the 'ideal', or better described as the most 'modern' arrangements for various parts of the house, paying close detail to avoid architectural blunders and present the most efficient and well-thought-out models. It's distinguished by geometric shapes and opulent finishes that ooze luxury. From there, it spread like wildfire. Notable examples include Erich Mendelsohn's Mossehaus and Schaubühne theater in Berlin, Fritz Höger's Chilehaus in Hamburg and his Kirche am Hohenzollernplatz in Berlin, the Anzeiger Tower in Hanover and the Borsig Tower in Berlin. [119] His styles offered structural simplicity[119] The corseted look and formal styles of the previous period were abandoned, and fashion became more practical, and streamlined. Dragonfly corsage ornament made of gold, enamel, chrysoprase, moonstones, and diamonds, designed by René Lalique, 1897–98; in the Gulbenkian Museum, Lisbon. Art Deco elements also appeared in engineering projects, including the towers of the Golden Gate Bridge and the intake towers of Hoover Dam. The early Art Deco style featured luxurious and exotic materials such as ebony, ivory and silk, very bright colors and stylized motifs, particularly baskets and bouquets of flowers of all colors, giving a modernist look. [7][8][9] In 1875, furniture designers, textile, jewelry and glass designers, and other craftsmen were officially given the status of artists by the French government. [106], The most prominent furniture designer at the 1925 Decorative Arts Exposition was Émile-Jacques Ruhlmann, from Alsace. The art deco style is often called “eclectic,” largely due to its seamless combination of stark, geometric lines and shapes with grandiose ornamentation and exotic details. Between 1925 and 1928 he constructed the new art deco facade of the La Samaritaine department store in Paris. The style of ships was soon adapted to buildings. 1940, "Beau Brownie" camera, Walter Dorwin Teague 1930 design for Eastman Kodak, Former Teatro Eden, now Aparthotel Vip Eden in Lisbon, Portugal: Cassiano Branco and Carlo Florencio Dias, 1931, 1937 Cord automobile model 812, designed in 1935 by Gordon M. Buehrig and staff, Palacio de Bellas Artes, Mexico City, Federico Mariscal, completed 1934, Women's Smoking Room at the Paramount Theatre, Oakland. Raymond Subes designed an elegant metal grille for the entrance of the Palais de la Porte Dorée, the centerpiece of the 1931 Paris Colonial Exposition. Display card commissioned by Cartier shows a woman in a Paul Poiret gown (1914), Armchair by Émile-Jacques Ruhlmann (1914) (Musée d'Orsay), Parisian department stores and fashion designers also played an important part in the rise of Art Deco. This stylish room at the Hotel Rose Bourbon designed by Interior Stories by Elodie & … Art Deco was a celebration of life in its most luxurious form. Art Deco For those who wish they could live in The Great Gatsby and can't pass up a geometric pattern, Art Deco style can bring all the glamour of the past into our everyday lives. The term appeared around 1884 in L'Art Moderne, a Belgian journal. His Stoclet Palace in Brussels (1905–1911), was a prototype of the Art Deco style, featuring geometric volumes, symmetry, straight lines, concrete covered with marble plaques, finely-sculpted ornament, and lavish interiors, including mosaic friezes by Gustav Klimt. In the United States, the most prominent Art Deco sculptor for public art was Paul Manship, who updated classical and mythological subjects and themes in an Art Deco style. [119] He designed clothing cut along straight lines and constructed of rectangular motifs. From $ 24 90 RRP. In the late 1930s a series of diners, modeled after streamlined railroad cars, were produced and installed in towns in New England; at least two examples still remain and are now registered historic buildings. The Cubist vocabulary was poised to attract fashion, furniture and interior designers. It reflected the human need for pleasure and escape, providing a modern outlook on life. La Samaritaine department store in Paris, France, by Henri Sauvage (1925–28), Los Angeles City Hall by John Parkinson, John C. Austin, and Albert C. Martin Sr. (1928), Interior of the Palacio de Bellas Artes (Palace of Fine Arts) in Mexico City, Mexico (1934), Entrance of the Villa Empain in Brussels, Belgium (1930–34), National Diet Building in Tokyo, Japan (1936), Mayakovskaya Metro Station in Moscow, Russia (1936), The architectural style of art deco made its debut in Paris in 1903–04, with the construction of two apartment buildings in Paris, one by Auguste Perret on rue Benjamin Franklin and the other on rue Trétaigne by Henri Sauvage. Originating in the 1890s, art nouveau largely took its inspiration from natural and organic shapes (think curving forms and flowing shapes). All of the major French furniture designers took part in Salon: Paul Follot, Paul Iribe, Maurice Dufrêne, André Groult, André Mare and Louis Suë took part, presenting new works that updated the traditional French styles of Louis XVI and Louis Philippe with more angular corners inspired by Cubism and brighter colors inspired by Fauvism and the Nabis. Rockefeller Center: Architecture as Theater. AU $646.96 postage. It was prevalent during the 1920’s and 1930’s, until around the beginning of World War II. The most famous producer of glass objects was René Lalique, whose works, from vases to hood ornaments for automobiles, became symbols of the period. [30][52][53][54], Besides the Cubist artists, Doucet brought in other Deco interior designers to help in decorating the house, including Pierre Legrain, who was in charge of organizing the decoration, and Paul Iribe, Marcel Coard, André Groult, Eileen Gray and Rose Adler to provide furniture. In architecture, Art Deco was the successor to and reaction against Art Nouveau, a style which flourished in Europe between 1895 and 1900, and also gradually replaced the Beaux-Arts and neoclassical that were predominant in European and American architecture. Lobby of 450 Sutter Street, San Francisco, California, by Timothy Pflueger (1929), inspired by ancient Maya art, The gilded bronze Prometheus at Rockefeller Center, New York City, N.Y., by Paul Manship (1934), a stylized Art Deco update of classical sculpture (1936), A ceramic vase inspired by motifs of traditional African carved wood sculpture, by Emile Lenoble (1937), Museum of Decorative Arts, Paris, Art Deco was not a single style, but a collection of different and sometimes contradictory styles. Classic 4er Set Chairs IN Art Deco Style C-160. The firm of Chaumet made highly geometric cigarette boxes, cigarette lighters, pillboxes and notebooks, made of hard stones decorated with jade, lapis lazuli, diamonds and sapphires. Amiens Cathedral has a rare example of Art Deco stained glass windows in the Chapel of the Sacred Heart, made in 1932-34 by the Paris glass artist Jean Gaudin based on drawings by Jacques Le Breton. [11] The term art déco was then used in a 1966 newspaper article by Hillary Gelson in The Times (London, 12 November), describing the different styles at the exhibit. In the 1930s, during the Great Depression, Art Deco became more subdued. Many early Art Deco sculptures were small, designed to decorate salons. [136], The Indian Institute of Architects, founded in Mumbai in 1929, played a prominent role in propagating the Art Deco movement. They range from public buildings like Vancouver City Hall to commercial buildings (College Park) to public works (R. C. Harris Water Treatment Plant). He treated glass as a form of sculpture, and created statuettes, vases, bowls, lamps and ornaments. Salon of the Hôtel du Collectionneur from the 1925 International Exposition of Decorative Arts, furnished by Émile-Jacques Ruhlmann, painting by Jean Dupas, design by Pierre Patout. The Great Depression that began in the United States in 1929, and reached Europe shortly afterwards, greatly reduced the number of wealthy clients who could pay for the furnishings and art objects. Only a small number of pieces of each design of furniture was made, and the average price of one of his beds or cabinets was greater than the price of an average house.[108]. Art Deco was associated with both luxury and modernity; it combined very expensive materials and exquisite craftsmanship put into modernistic forms. The styles ranged from the updated versions of Louis XIV, Louis XVI, and especially Louis Philippe furniture made by Louis Süe and the Primavera workshop, to more modern forms from the workshop of the Au Louvre department store.

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